There is no certificate of completion at the end of primary school.  Ghana`s education expenditure over the past decade has amounted to about 25% of its annual budget. Ghana has an informal education sector, which is generally composed of vocational and technical training institutions. These institutions are informal because they do not take place in a classroom; Instead, they usually take the form of learning, direct learning, practice and supervision by trainers. As a rule, there are no official or recognized certifications or qualifications awarded to trainees.  In pre-colonial times, education in Ghana was informal; Knowledge and skills were transmitted orally and through apprenticeship training.    The arrival of European settlers in the 16th century brought with it new forms of learning. Formal schools were built that allowed for book-based education.  Their audience was made up of local elites (mulattoes, sons of local chiefs and wealthy traders) and their presence was limited to colonial fortresses on the coasts.  Ghana is a pioneer of modern mass education in West Africa. First introduced in Christian missionary schools and colonial public schools, especially in coastal areas during the period of formal British rule after 1867, modern European education was greatly expanded by the Ghanaian government after independence in 1957. The introduction of free and compulsory basic education in 1961 was a real milestone that greatly contributed to improving access to education, as was the establishment of Ghana`s first universities: the University of Ghana, originally founded in 1948 under British rule; and the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) opened in 1952.
Between 1960 and 1967 alone, the number of children enrolled in public primary schools more than doubled. Ghana`s literacy rate, estimated at less than 20 per cent at the time of independence, rose to 58 per cent in 2000. Not surprisingly, Ghanaian students tend to prefer English study destinations such as the United States or the United Kingdom, with the latter hosting 1,300 students seeking a degree in 2017. However, while four of the top five study destinations are English-speaking, other destinations have also gained popularity. The number of Ghanaian students in Ukraine, for example, which is now the third most popular destination, nearly doubled between 2014 and 2017, largely thanks to students undergoing low-cost medical training in the Eastern European country. Visa barriers in Ukraine are lower for Ghanaians than in most Western destinations, and the cost of living is also lower, although there are reports of racist violence. The impact is difficult to assess: 90% of training is informal and the public and private sectors are highly segmented.   The Ministry of Education itself acknowledges that it is not in a position to provide a statistical overview of the vocational education and training sector in Ghana.
 Although the higher education system is still small, it has also grown considerably in recent decades. The number of universities increased from just three in 1990 to 70 in 2014, while the tertiary CEFR rose from less than 2% in the early 1970s to 16.5% in 2015. The total number of higher education students increased from just 16,161 in 1980 to 444,000 in 2017 (according to UIS data). Students who successfully complete the BECE can enter secondary education and study academic or vocational programmes. The types of higher education institutions in Ghana include 10 public universities, eight technical universities and seven university-level vocational training institutions. While NAB defines universities as multi-faculty institutions that are “dedicated to advanced teaching and research in multiple branches of learning, awarding degrees in different faculties and often embodying similar colleges, schools, and institutions,” technical universities and professional institutions specialize more closely in specific disciplines. A number of large public universities, such as the University of Energy and Natural Resources and the University of Education, Winneba, also have a more specialized orientation. Over the past decade, government attention has shifted to the use of computer technology in teaching and learning.
The ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) standard in Ghana`s education policy calls for the use of ICTs for teaching and learning at all levels of the education system. The Ministry of Education has made efforts to assist schools in the transmission of ICT skills. Most secondary schools and some primary schools have computer labs.  Despite the federal government`s interest in ICT, access to computers is very limited and electronic devices are often transported by staff to ensure they are not stolen.  The state of vocational education and training in Ghana remains unclear: 90% of vocational training is still informal, in the form of apprenticeship.  The provision of formal VET programmes in the private sector is also difficult to define and the Ministry of Education acknowledges its inability to offer public vocational training programmes. This system is also intended to assist the Secretariat in providing scholarships to applicants in an appropriate and efficient manner. Applicants can apply for scholarships and take the aptitude test online and be interviewed in their own districts without having to travel to Accra as was required in the past.  Early History of Education – An Overview: The first history of Western formal education in Ghana is directly related to the history of European activities on the Gold Coast. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive on the coast of Guinea in 1471. Their intention to establish schools was expressed in the imperial instructions which, in 1529, encouraged the governor of the Portuguese castle of Elmina to teach people to read, write and the Catholic religion.
Although there is no evidence of their success, there is ample evidence that Dutch, Danish and English companies ran schools on the Gold Coast and that the teaching of reading, writing and religious instruction took place within the castle walls. To be admitted to teacher training colleges, applicants must make a payment of ₵115.5, obtain a personal identification number (PIN) and an application serial number, which can be used to access and complete an online application form.  Applicants would then select three colleges of their choice for their program in order of preference on the online application form. In the event that they are not admitted to the first choice, the second and third choices may be considered.  Nigeria is by far the largest country of origin, accounting for more than 70% of international students seeking a degree in Ghana (9,172 students in 2017). If you consider students who are not pursuing a degree, this number is even higher. According to some reports, there were between 71,000 and 75,000 Nigerian students in the country in 2014, which has brought significant funds to ghana`s economy and education system. .